Like any scientific theory, the theory of global warming has its share of detractors. Most criticisms of global warming stem from a lack of understanding of the science phenomena. Global warming opponents make claims that roughly fit into two categories: the claim that carbon dioxide concentrations do not affect atmospheric temperatures, at least not in a significant amount compared with the effect of the sun, and the claim that the carbon dioxide released due to the activities of humans is dwarfed by the carbon dioxide released through natural processes. This document will refute those objections.
Mars is much further from the sun than Earth's moon is, so it therefore receives a lot less radiation from the sun than the moon does. This difference is a lot greater than any recorded fluctuation in the radiation output of the sun. Despite this, the average surface temperature on Mars is 227 degrees Kelvin (-46 degrees Celsius), which is less than 175 degrees Kelvin. This is because of Mars's very thin carbon dioxide atmosphere. Mars's atmosphere is 1/127 the density of Earth's, but that very thin atmosphere is enough to make Mars 52 Celsius degrees warmer than the moon, despite the fact that the moon receives 3.53 times the radiation per unit of surface area from the sun as Mars.
The differences are even more dramatic when we compare Mercury to Venus. Because of its distance to the sun, Mercury receives on average 6.52 times the amount of radiation per unit of surface area than Venus does, but because of a runaway greenhouse affect Venus is 395 Celsius degrees hotter than Mercury.
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